So I Heard You Like Charged Cupa

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Excerpted from latimes. To be continued Excerpted from a Forbes article by Clarissa Windham-Bradstock When record-low unemployment rates collide with record-high drug use in the American workforce, companies can find themselves. The cost is a few dollars more but highly recommended if you are not planning to sleep the whole distance - plus you can ask the driver to stop along the way! The legendary warrior of the Nether, only bested by the Nether Emperor himself. In the 49 houses then standing one had already been destroyed in a wind storm were home to people — of them over the age of

Important Information

Be prepared to be greeted by a crowd of people around the gate as staff do not enforce the creation of a queue line. When you arrive at lost and found, check with those who arrived before you. Often, they may have insights into approximate wait times etc.. Speaking of wait times, as of December , wait times can be as long as seven hours, or longer!

If you are unable to make any progress, you may also demand, if at all possible, that your airline take lead on escorting you though the gated lost and found entry point. For a number of guests, this option proved successful. Please note that if you have purchased a oneworld ticket then further flights into America within that year will be disallowed through American Airlines.

Santiago de Cuba is connected with the rest of Cuba by road and rail connections. There are also regular holiday charter flights to resorts such as Varadero and to the eastern city of Holguin Condor fly here from Frankfurt , and these can sometimes be less expensive than those going to Havana.

The airports are all fully-air-conditioned and quite modern, compared to other destinations in the Caribbean, offer good medical care in case of problems, and are usually relatively hassle free. There are no regular ferries or boats to Cuba from foreign ports, although some cruise liners do visit. Yachters are expected to anchor at the public marinas. Most ports are closed and tourists are not permitted to walk around them.

There are no visa requirements. Expect to hand out several USD10 bills to facilitate your entry. Buses in Cuba are called "guaguas" like in other areas of the Caribbean, it is pronounced "GUAHguah" with the g sounding like in gate , not like in George. Other Spanish words like bus and colectivos will not be understood by many Cubans.

This name applies to any bus from a local bus "guagua local" to a bigger, fancier tourist bus "guagua de turismo". They run comfortable air-conditioned long-distance coaches with washrooms and televisions to most places of interest to tourists. The buses are getting a bit grubby, but they are reliable and punctual. Complete schedules can be found on the Viazul website the Varadero - Santa Clara - Cienfuegos - Trinidad and return service is missing from the website but runs daily.

The buses can be used theoretically by anyone, including Cubans, but in reality, few Cubans can afford the convertible peso fares. Reservations can be made in advance, but are usually unnecessary except at peak travel times. You can buy tickets online via Viazul website but beware that in reality sales go through Spanish agency, what sometimes leads to online tickets being "lost" and not propagated to Viazul system e.

Refreshments are not served, despite what the website says, but the buses stop for meal breaks at highway restaurants with bad food Bring your own food! The buses are often over air conditioned, so bring along something warm to wear. Note that most westbound buses from Santiago de Cuba run overnight. Depending on location, you have to show up from 30 to 60 minutes before the bus departure for check in.

Astro is the bus line that most Cubans use.

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Astro recently renewed their fleet with new Chinese coaches that are as comfortable as Viazul without the washroom. Although the new buses have proven to be unreliable and often break down, they are still better than the old buses that Astro used to run. Astro has a much more extensive network than Viazul, and contrary to popular belief depending upon the vendor and your ability to speak Spanish, especially if your destination is not covered by Viazul, it is possible to purchase tickets.

In La Habana routes are covered by newer YuTong Chinese buses throughout the city, and are a welcome respite from the extortionate taxi fares. Each fare costs 0. This is particularly useful in getting to the airport, where the official rate is CUC from Centro or Vieja via taxi although patient bargaining can lower this to 15 CUC ; any bus to Santiago de Las Vegas such as P-2, P and P, which run from Parque Fraternidad next to the Capitolio and anywhere along Avendida de la Independencia, can take you near the airport to Boyeros again for 0.

From Boyeros outside the Psychiatric Hospital, or a few stops before, or one after, one can walk, flag a taxi down, or if going to Terminal 3 take the 'Connexions' bus. People will be helpful when asking for advice about this whilst on the bus, even without Spanish skills.

To reiterate at the time of writing this option will cost you from 0. If you are carrying more than a small back pack or carry-on luggage, they bus may not be the best option. Often, buses are jam-packed with no space to spare. There are also local provincial buses, consisting of overcrowded old beat-up eastern European buses that may or may not be running but they are very very cheap.

Each town will have a "terminal" where buses or trucks large pre s vehicles serve local destinations and usually neighbouring provinces for example from Santiago you can get to Bayamo or Guantanamo. It is important to note that queues will be lengthy it is best to arrive in the early hours of the morning, or alternatively give the chauffeur a tip to allow you to jump the queue and you should always say that you are a student, as tourists are theoretically forbidden from using this transport.

You may occasionally need to pay a little extra by virtue of being a tourist, but this should never be more than CUC for long journeys as opposed to CUP for locals. It is also possible to travel between some popular tourist destinations, such as Havana and Varadero, on special tourist minibuses carrying people.

The cost is a few dollars more but highly recommended if you are not planning to sleep the whole distance - plus you can ask the driver to stop along the way! Alternatively there are some guaguas which might actually be cheaper than the official bus. The advantages of these colectivos is that they bring you exactly where you want, they can be cheaper and they run and stop for a snack when you want them to.

Example Santa Clara - La Habana: Viazul costs 18 CUC and leave at 3: While this transport like many things in Cuba! Official taxis are pretty expensive for long distances. Some recent Jan fares include CUC for 4 pax Havana-Trinidad, 50 CUC for 4 pax Santa Clara-Matanzas this will be more or less depending on your luck, bargaining skills, and willingness to wait for another taxi.

If you're up for a little adventure, you can find some enterprising locals willing to illegally play "taxi" with their old car for a little less money. Be aware that if they get caught, you will have to get out of the car. Although you will not be in any trouble with the authorities, you may find yourself in the middle of nowhere with no transportation.

Taxis are the most convenient way to get around within the big cities. There are several types of taxis, including the official government taxis, the private and potentially unlicensed "yank tanks", and the small three-wheeled coco-taxis. They're fairly abundant and not hard to find - they tend to group in front of large hotels, but it will usually be cheaper to find one elsewhere.

You will find an unusually large number of old U. Popularly known as "Yank Tanks," these are pre-revolution imports from the s that have been nursed along for half a century, because the Soviet-made cars available during the Cold War were too scarcely allocated for most Cubans to buy and other cars remain too expensive today. Car rental starts from CUC 65 per day including insurance plus the cost of a full tank of gasoline.

The refundable deposits start around CUC Rental cars are for the most part fairly new, imported European or Asian models. Any traffic tickets received are noted on a rental car sheet and are deducted from your rental deposit. Note that if you are involved in a serious traffic accident involving injury or death, you will be detained in Cuba until the legal process sorts things out, which can take from several months to a year.

For this reason, many countries advise their citizens not to rent cars in Cuba. Scams in car rental offices seem to become common, although it is by no means ubiquitous. The deceit exploits your desire to be safe and have a full-cover insurance. Check the Scams section for details. Keep in mind that some suspicious things are OK -- for instance, the deposit usually around CUC is almost always paid in cash.

Just make sure you get a receipt. Busier roads and city streets are generally of fair drivable quality and should not pose much trouble if due care is exercised, however some quiet rural roads are in need of serious repair. Generally traffic is light, especially away from Havana. Outside of towns and cities traffic is usually very light, with no cars for miles on some rural roads.

Be warned - you also share the highways with local salespeople selling cheese, snacks and onions! Also note that the Autopista the main highway running down the center of the country is crossed at occasional intervals by railway tracks - take care to slow down before going over to avoid damage to the tires or suspension.

Roads are poorly signposted and frequently not at all , so if you do plan to do serious driving, it would be well-advised to download maps on your phone in advance and make sure your GPS works. It may also help to get a detailed printed map and ask for directions when not sure, in particular as some roads in the countryside are of very poor quality and Google Maps does not indicate road quality and it may be wildly optimistic in driving time.

Be especially careful in the mountains, as some roads can be dangerous if you are not an experienced 4x4 off-roads driver, and they may even be entirely impassible after heavy rains. Be aware that many traffic lights, especially in cities, are placed on the -far- corner of the intersection, unlike Europe where the light is where you stop or the US where the light is in the middle of the intersection.

It is probably obvious that you should not stop in the middle of an intersection, but just keep your wits about you! Expect to encounter checkpoints when traveling in the interior of the country, typically at intersections between two major roads, but not always. The speeds are clearly indicated and usually require you to slow down to Respect the speed limits or get fined 10 CUC!

As of January , gasoline costs around 1. Tourist rental cars are required to use 94 octane fuel. The Cuban government's system for facilitating hitchhiking is by far the most economical way for foreigners to travel in Cuba, though a flexible schedule and good Spanish are a must.

Known as "El Amarillo" "the yellow guy" for the yellowy-beige uniforms of its administrators, the system consists of points along main routes where certain vehicles are required to stop and pick up hitchhikers. Amarillo points "el punto amarillo" along major highways are often full service rest stops for hitchhikers, with water, peso-priced food, and a 24 hour indoor waiting area.

Hitchhiking is the only system where you can travel for Cuban prices without paying a tourist premium. Given that transportation is one of a tourist's biggest expenses in Cuba, this can make your money go much further. Tell folks you're a student not a tourist to avoid funny looks and price gouging.

Tell the official where you need to go, and wait. To travel long distances, you need to get to the "punto amarillo" on the edge of the city in the direction you're going. Ask a local for help on the best way to do that. Then as you pass through cities, ask what bus or taxi to take to get to the "punto amarillo" on the outgoing road at the opposite extreme of the city.

This can be tricky, and it's often worth it to take a local taxi. If you can find a Cuban to accompany you on your journey, their help will be invaluable. In daytime hours, when the amarillo is present, you pay a nominal amount of money approx. The money all goes to the government; drivers don't get any.

As a result, it's much easier to travel long distances at night, when the amarillo has gone home and drivers can make some money picking up hitchhikers. Of course, it's always possible to hitchhike just by sticking out your thumb to passing cars, but be prepared to give the driver pesos for a long ride.

Most of the rides you get will be in the back of large trucks, open to the weather. This is an exciting and beautiful way to travel the Cuban countryside. Though an accident would obviously be very dangerous for passengers, school kids, older adults, and parents with small children use this system every day.

Make sure to bring protection against sun and rain and, if traveling at night, wind and cold. There is one reliable train in Cuba: It uses equipment that was formerly operated on the Trans-Europe Express, and donated to Cuba by France a few years ago hence the name. There are first class and special first class seats on this train the special seats are better and more expensive , but no sleepers.

If only one train in Cuba is running, this will be it. All other trains in Cuba are unreliable. The equipment is often in poor condition, breakdowns are common, and when they occur, you can be stuck for the better part of the day or night waiting for a replacement engine.

There are no services on the trains, so bring plenty of food and water with you. Trains are frequently cancelled. Some trains offer first class seats don't expect too much ; others have second class seats, which can be very uncomfortable. Schedules are at best optimistic and should always be checked in advance of travel.

There are no sleepers on overnight routes. If you are still determined to take a train, approximate schedules are given under the different city descriptions. Foreigners must pay much higher fares which is still very cheap than the locals. Tickets are roughly two-thirds what Viazul charges. Theft is a problem so watch your luggage! The following services can be expected to run special first class: They operate on the following routes:.

Calm roads and beautiful scenery make Cuba an ideal country for biking. You will have to bring your own bike as bikes suitable for trekking are not readily available in Cuba. Do not under any circumstances rent a bike i. Roads in most places in Cuba are reasonable, but it may still be a good idea to bring a mountain bike.

Mountain bikes are stronger and allow for better driving off-road. Make sure to bring all spare parts you might need along the way, since they will not be available in Cuba. As casas particulares are available even in relatively small towns it is easy to plan an itinerary. Food for on the road can often be obtained locally for cheap Cuban Pesos, but make sure if you travel through more remote areas to carry enough food and water!

Obtaining bottled water outside the major cities can be a definite problem. Bikers are often met with enthusiasm and interest; when taking a break you will often be approached by curious locals. It is possible to take bikes on a tour bus, like "Viazul", to cover larger distances.

You have to arrange a personal agreement with the driver however, who will expect a little bonus in return. It is also possible to take bikes on trains and even to hitch with bikes wave some convertible pesos to approaching drivers to catch their attention. The best times to go are between December and April, to avoid the horrendous storms and hurricanes before December and the sticky heat of the Cuban summer which can be unbearable for some.

This is also the high season so expect a price increase during this period. The official language of Cuba is Spanish , quite similar to the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rican Spanish, although the version here is quite different from that spoken in Spain although quite similar to the one in Canary Islands because many Cubans are descendants of Canarians , Mexico and South America.

Cubans tend to swallow the last syllable in a word and generally swallow the 's' sound. Basic to fair English is spoken in some tourist locations and language should not be a deterrent to visiting the country for non-Spanish speaking tourists capable of speaking English, though basic Spanish would prove useful, especially in more informal settings.

Cubans enjoy talking to tourists, especially if you are staying with them in the "Casas particulares" and some knowledge of Spanish will help you understand regular Cubans' experiences. Young Cubans amongst themselves will use the word "asere" which means "buddy" but is generally used between men and is not recommended for use by women. For information specific to U.

Prior to November US dollars were in wide circulation on par with the CUC, but the government discontinued that and they are no longer used. CUC pronounced kook is the currency most tourists will use in Cuba. It is how you will pay for hotels, official taxis, entry into museums, meals at restaurants, cigars, rum, etc.

Conversion into CUC can be done at exchange houses casa de cambio, or cadeca. These are located in many hotels and in other places throughout the cities. There is a limited range of goods that can be bought for local pesos, and these are transactions carried out in agricultural markets or from street vendors. Fruits, vegetables, fresh juices and snacks from street vendors are among the things CUP can buy.

CUP's also buys the local cigars 'tabacos' or 'Nacionales' in local shops. These taste fair, and you get one for 1 CUP, far cheaper than what you have to pay for the exportation brands. Try them, they are OK. If you plan on staying in Havana there are plenty of locations that offer goods in CUP and they are worth checking out. There are even sit down restaurants with food priced in CUP.

The food is cheaper and you will be eating with actual Cubans. However the quality of cuisine can be very hit or miss. If you are on a budget, finding food vendors in CUP is the best way to go. These will not be aimed at tourists and therefore much cheaper. Changing Cuban currency can only be done in Cuba. Cambio shop, banks, and hotels offer currency conversion.

Ironically, if converting from CUC to other currencies, USD is one of the few currencies that are available to convert to. There is no penalty when converting to USD. For the overwhelming majority of travelers, it is completely unnecessary to exchange your money losing twice. Check to see if your home currency is accepted at the Banco Metropolitano [11].

If you must change a large sum of home currency for another, make sure to change directly into CUCs, and research exchange rates in advance. If you must buy Canadian Dollars or Euros first, compare retail rates from different forex vendors: There's little difference between the rates offered at Cuban airport kiosks or banks.

Consider changing only what you need, because re-conversion will add another exchange cost. Also, be advised that travelers changing money on the street have been defrauded, with fake or local currency. Caveat emptor! Most tourists will not ever use the 'moneda nacional' on holiday.

Travelers or Backpackers with a low budget can save a lot of money in food expenses if they are willing to compromise on food quality. This is particularly feasible in Havana where there is more street food. Traveler's checks drawn on American banks are not technically valid in Cuba, though many have had success cashing U.

American Express checks are difficult to cash due to the likelihood that they were purchased with U. For example, Swiss traveler's checks will be accepted, as long as they are in Swiss francs, even if the checks are made "in licence" of an American bank, as long as the real producer of them is non-American.

Visa traveler's cheques are accepted, though the same caveats about being drawn on an American bank apply. It's better to bring cash to Cuba; resorts accept Euros, Canadian dollars, British pounds, Swiss francs and Hong Kong Dollar currencies without any fees. If backpacking or leaving the resort areas, exchange your currency to CUCs, as foreign currency is not accepted by many locals.

For U. In December , the U. As a result, U. As of December , U. With all of this being said, travelers should carefully review the information below. ATMs are relatively rare in Cuba, with most being in Havana. Unlike some national systems, only primary accounts typically checking are recognized.

Even if you find an ATM and meet the above criteria it still may not have sufficient cash for a large withdrawal - if refused, try again and ask for a smaller amount or ask the bank clerks for a cash advance, they can process cash advances. Canadian debit cards are generally not accepted, although this does vary from card to card. As a rule of thumb: If you were able to make a purchase via internet it may work.

If it is a USA bank card it won't work. Many banks will tell you that your debit card will be accepted in Cuba when in fact it will not. Do not rely on ATMs for cash as you may be used to in other countries. Top Tip: Have enough currency or travellers cheques when you enter the country to get by, if necessary.

To withdraw cash you will need to present your passport to an employee, and you will be asked where you are staying. The Cadecas are open longer hours than the banks, but the queues are usually much shorter in the banks. Other than for use at ATMs and banks, there are generally no facilities for making payments with plastic in hotels, shops and restaurants, necessitating the use of cash.

Banks often close at 3 p. Cadecas exchange bureaus may be open longer, especially in hotels. When going to a bank allow enough time as service is usually slow and many people may already be waiting. Foreigners may get preferred treatment in exchange for a small tip. You must bring your passport in case you want to exchange traveler's checks or make a credit card advance, although cash can be changed without a passport.

Exchange rates do vary from place to place, and some hotels do give significantly worse exchange rates than the banks. You will receive a receipt with all the denominations in CUC you will receive for your currency. As in any developing country, most of the merchandise available is designed for tourists to take back home. The biggest Cuban exports for tourists are rum, cigars, and coffee, all of which are available at government-owned stores including the duty free store at the airport or on the streets.

For genuine merchandise, you should pay the official price at the legal stores. Cubans also do well in creating music such as salsa, son, and Afro-Cubano. You can purchase CDs or tapes anywhere, but paying the average cost of 20 CUC assures you of quality. If you are planning to take big quantities several boxes or more of cigars with you, be sure you have purchased them officially from an approved shop that gives you proper purchase documentation.

Foreign nationals are allowed to export up to 50 cigars generally 25 to a box without special permits or receipts, but the export of more requires official receipts. Also, be advised that any purchase of Cuban cigars outside government-approved stores even in resorts has the potential to be fake, and that the "cigar factory worker who steals from the factory" does not exist in any appreciable quantities.

If you find a "deal" from a street vendor, it's incredibly likely you are getting fakes, some of which may not even be made of tobacco. Always ensure, no matter where you buy, that the Cuban government origin warranty stamp is properly affixed to the cigar box. Americans are no longer allowed to bring Cuban cigars back into the U.

It is also illegal for Americans to smoke or buy Cuban cigars anywhere in the world. When you buy artwork from approved shop then they'll give you also the required document, that consists of one paper and one stamp that will be glued on back of your painting. Serial numbers on the stamp and paper must match.

Cost of the document is about CUC In reality, it is possible that no one will be interested in your paintings. Cuba has long been a popular Medical Tourism destination for patients worldwide that seek high quality medical care at low costs. According to the Association of Caribbean States, nearly 20, international patients visited Cuba in for medical care.

Cuba is especially attractive to many Latin American and North American patients given its easy proximity and relaxing environment. A wide range of medical treatments are provided including joint replacement, cancer treatment, eye surgery, cosmetic surgery and addictions rehabilitation. Costs are about 60 to 80 percent less than U. As all restaurants are owned by the government and run by employees, the food in Cuba is notoriously bland.

If you are expecting the fiery pepperpot spiciness found on some of the other Caribbean islands, consider that the national dish in Cuba is rice and beans moros y cristianos. A popular saying goes that the best Cuban food can be found in the United States. Within Cuba, the best food will generally be found in your casa particular or in paladares locally owned restaurants in private homes.

Black beans are a main staple in Cuban households. Cubans eat mainly pork and chicken for meat. You may see turtle on menus in Paladares, but be aware that they are endangered and eating them is illegal. Paladares are plentiful, even in the smaller towns. Seating is often limited, so you may need to arrive when they open, usually around 5 or 6PM.

If you are staying in a casa particular ask your host for recommendations, as the quality of the food can vary substantially between paladares. Only eat in ones that have a printed menu with prices, otherwise you are very likely to pay two to three times as much as you should. That said, several have taken to printing two different menus, one with local prices and one with foreigner prices.

Eating in paladares is perfectly legal, but be aware that if you are taken there by a Cuban, you may be charged extra in order to cover commission of the person who brought you. A supper will cost around 7 to 10 CUC per person. Eating in state owned hotels and restaurants is significantly more expensive and compares with prices in many first world countries.

An average supper with soup, dessert and a glass or two of wine could easily set you back 20 to 30 CUC per person. Note that in these establishments, the vast majority of the employees' income would come from tips their monthly salary often being less than the cost of one meal , making it a friendly and welcome gesture to tip liberally for good service.

In bigger towns you will also find some state-run restaurants which cater mainly to Cubans and accept local currency. Prices are extremely low, but the quality of food, service and ambiance is typically shocking. You may be able to secure better food by offering to pay in CUCs. Still, this may be an option if you are on a really low budget or look for an 'authentic' Cuban experience.

If you choose to tip, do so in CUCs as anything else would be an insult to staff. It is difficult to find any restaurants serving breakfast in Cuba outside of resorts; most casas particulares will serve their guests a large breakfast for around 4 CUC per person if requested. Sometimes if you ask nicely, your casa particular owner may let you use their kitchen to prepare your own food - in fact, they are usually quite accommodating if for instance you have special dietary requirements, or young children etc.

You can also find small street vendors selling a variety of foods, typically sandwiches and pizzas for between 2 and 12 CUP. The quality varies from vendor to vendor so when you find a good one take note. Many of these stores are run from people's living rooms, and buying from them is a good way to help provide some extra income to a Cuban family.

While these meals are satisfying and cheap, be warned that long lines are common and the vendors are rarely in any rush to see everyone fed quickly. Havana Chinatown Food in Cuba is quite monotonous and - let's be honest - pretty bad mainly rice, beans, chicken, sandwiches and pizza, all prepared without much regard to taste or presentation , but check out the small Havana Chinatown a few blocks west of the Capitolio if you are looking for something different.

There are a few Chinese themed restaurants there, where the food is neither spectacular nor really authentic, but decent enough if you can't face another serving of rice and beans. Street food can also be a notch better here, try the area around the intersection of Avenida de Italia and Avenue Zanja. Cuban national cocktails include the Cuba Libre rum and cola and the Mojito rum, lime, sugar, mint leaves, club soda and ice.

If you request a rum in a small country restaurant do not be surprised if it is only available by the bottle. Havana Club is the national brand and the most popular. Cristal is a light beer and is available in "dollar" stores where Cubans with CUCs and visitors may shop.

Cubans prefer the Bucanero Fuerte , which at 5. A stronger version, Bucanero Max is also available - primarily available in Havana. There are also smaller brews, not available everywhere, such as Hatuey and Corona del Mar. These are sold in CUP. Note that - similar to restaurants - there are two types of establishments you can go to to drink in Cuba: Western-style CUC bars with near-Western prices, a good selection of quality drinks and sometimes food , nice decorations, semi-motivated staff and often live music, typically found around tourist hot-spots such as Old Havana and tourist hotels.

Here you will mostly meet other tourists, expats and a few Cubans with access to hard currency, but don't expect a 'local' experience. The alternative is to seek out local neighborhood bars where you can choose from a quality, but limited, selection of drinks mainly locally produced rum by the bottle, beer and soft drinks, very rarely will you be able to get cocktails such as mojitos , cigars of dubious and cigarettes of only slightly better quality, and sometimes snacks.

The events and emotions described here apply to those villagers as well. Their territory was centered around Warner Hot Springs. Their main village was known as Cupa— hence their name. There was hardly a plant or animal found in their territory that was not used for food, for medicine, or for manufacture.

The village of Cupa, circa Many of these adobes still stand; they were later used as guest cottages at the Warner Hot Springs resort. The earliest recorded Spanish expedition to the area was in In the summer it was occupied by sheep and in other seasons by brood mares. The first was granted to Silvestre Portilla in and the second to Jonathan Trumbull Warner in With the American takeover of California in , the U.

Congress ordered a review of all Mexican land grants by a special commission. The hearings, appeals, and surveys took decades. In , John Gately Downey, a former governor of California, began acquiring land in the valley and by was the sole owner of most of the old Warner Ranch. Under Spanish and Mexican law, the Indians had held the right to continue to occupy their existing villages, even when the land was granted as a rancho.

American law did not see it that way. As early as there had been rumors that Governor Downey intended to remove the Indians from the Warner Ranch. But first he had to settle his own right to the land. Alas, which began working its way through the courts in Identifications provided by Roscinda Nolasquez.

The case was heard in San Diego County Superior Court, and the villager— not surprisingly—lost the first round. It was only a possessory right, but it was enough. The suit against Cupa and Puerta la Cruz was known as Downey v. Barker et al. Quevas et al. Now, along with Frank D. Downey was represented by State Senator Stephen M. White of Los Angeles.

The Warner and Portilla grants had been patented, Downey had purchased the property and paid the taxes on it, and the patents said nothing about any Indians. They were trespassers and should be removed. With that, the plaintiffs rested. Ward and Lewis took a more calculated approach.

Their case followed the lines of the Soboba suit. This point was clearly understood by the earliest American officials in California. Ward and Lewis introduced records from the Mexican archives of the Pico and Warner grants, and copies of U. To prove the Indians long occupancy at Cupa, they placed some of the oldest members of the tribe on the stand to share their memories with the court.

Alejandro Barker at 39 the only registered voter at Cupa did the translating. A reporter for The San Diego Union wrote,. Being deeply interested in the ultimate outcome of the suit, Barker may consider himself highly honored by the council for the plaintiff, who, in thus allowing him to interpret the remarks of his fellow citizens in a tongue that nobody but himself understood, evinced a faith in his honesty that should be gratifying in the extreme.

Barker was not well during the trial. But he was too patriotic to give up when so needed by his people. She did not speak Spanish … but gave her testimony in the Indian tongue. The Moro family outside their home at Cupa, Machola Moro, a key witness at the removal trial, is standing fifth from the left. Her son-in-law, Adolfo Moro, is wearing a dark vest. The man on the far right may be his son, Domingo Moro.

The Indians then used to live a good deal on acorns and lots of other stuff that grows around the Hot Springs there—grasses and cactus and one thing and another…. Here are some of the different seeds we used to use. The Indians had cultivation at Agua Caliente when I was a little girl, and my husband used to cultivate land. I remember when the men were kind of broken up.

The priests were coming along there, and we had church sometimes and prayed there; whenever the priests got there, we went to the church and prayed. The priest never lived there; he came down from someplace else. The church had a kind of corral—all around it there and big houses all around it, but there was a cross right in the middle, where the church is now—right there standing up.

It was not really a church-house, but a big house they kept the grain [in] — a kind of grain-house; they moved the grain and one thing and another, and then would have the church inside sometimes; they brought their children and had church where the cross was. The big house for keeping grain in was built by some of the men who lived right there at the Hot Springs; under orders from the priests, the Indian men, women and children all worked on it, and built the house.

I was never at San Luis Rey Mission while the priest had charge of it. All testified to their long occupation at the hot springs. In addition to his objection, Senator White cross-examined many of the witnesses, especially on the subject of agriculture: What crops were grown? How big were the fields? How were they irrigated? White wanted to prove that they had not been so civilized.

As for Governor Downey, he was clearly no longer in control of himself or the case. According to court records,. Senator White was his attorney, and when this cross-questioning became annoying he would impatiently remind the childish old man that he was trying the case, and that matters would be much facilitated if the ex-governor would keep still.

After Ward and Lewis rested, they asked to reopen their case and submit further evidence. They admitted this was a stretch, but in the Soboba case the court had ruled that Indian occupation was in the same character as a highway — that is, an easement allowing use by others which is what the term servidumbres technically means. To support their outrageous claim, they introduced into evidence a letter Warner had secured at the time of his grant:.

Under Mexican law, land in use by a mission could not be granted to private individuals. The mission had been secularized in , but was still controlled by a government administrator and thus had a nominal claim on the lower valley in The point of this letter was to clear the way for the Warner grant so far as the mission was concerned.

Warner naturally saw through this farce. Asked about the letter, Warner apparently had a map of the rancho in front him when he replied:. Let me explain, sometimes we are misled from not understanding certain facts; and now I will tell you so that you may understand this, both you and your client and anybody else. Hot springs at Warner Ranch. Factually, the issue was clear, but legally it was still in doubt.

After three days of testimony both sides rested. With the testimony completed, the case should have moved along promptly, but then followed a series of delays both legal and otherwise which postponed a ruling for almost three and a half years. First, on March 1, , Governor Downey died. Settling his estate was complicated by the fact that for more than a year, no will could be found.

Eventually his nephew, J. Downey Harvey, was substituted as plaintiff in the suits. Judge W. Pierce presided in Department III. He waited more than a year before ruling on the cases, submitting his judgment on December 29, , just days before he retired from the bench. The government patent, he held, was conclusive as to property rights.

With those two rulings the result was inevitable. Ward and Lewis immediately filed a motion for a new trial but their request was denied. The Indian Rights Association of Philadelphia managed to raise the money in just a few days, and the appeal was filed in June Forced to resume their legal battle, the attorneys for the Downey heirs continued their two-pronged attack: The confirmation of this legal title and the issue of the patent therefore in no way changed the character of such title, nor freed it from the easement in favor of the defendants….

Under the Mexican law, no obligation rested upon such Indians as these of acquiring their property rights by specific grant; but such rights were given and protected by the general law of the land, and the United States by treaty guaranteed that it would protect all private property rights existing within the ceded territory.

There can be no issue here as to what the law of Mexico authorizes, unless that law was carried into and made a part of the statutory enactments of the United States. The United States as a sovereign [nation] had the power to do whatever it chose with the property acquired from Mexico regardless of any treaty stipulations.

Yet in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the United States had pledged to protect all land titles in California, and the act authorizing the Land Commission in had specifically ordered a review of the status of Indian titles so that a determination could be made. There is no record that such a report was ever completed, but during the appeals process the courts operated on the assumption that the requirements of the act had been obeyed, and that the rights of the Indians had been found wanting.

It was reasonable to suppose that Congress did not intend the provisions of the Act of to apply to Indians who knew no English, could not read and write, and who knew as little regarding individual or tribal ownership of property as they did of Acts of Congress or of Land Commissioners. They must be attended to, it is true, and protected, but they cannot interfere with the effect of a patent of the United States.

The courts cannot exercise any direct appellate jurisdiction over the rulings of those officers or of their superior in the department in such matters, nor can they reverse or correct them in a collateral proceeding between private parties…. It would lead to endless litigation, and be fruitful of evil, if a supervisory power were vested in the courts over actions of the numerous officers of the Land Department, on mere questions of fact presented for their determination.

And it seems clear that the courts had no intention of letting the rights of one small tribe of Indians overturn four decades of high-priced litigation. Four justices concurred while three including Chief Justice William Beatty dissented. The majority decision noted: Pico had abandoned his rancho and his rights had been extinguished. In his dissent, Chief Justice Beatty argued that there was no material difference between Byrne v.

Alas and this case. Withington, one of the Downey family attorneys, while welcoming the verdict was mild in his comments to the press: After the removal, Withington felt free to express a different opinion. Ward and Lewis immediately asked the court for a rehearing, but their request was denied. Shirley Ward went to Washington in March to help argue the case before the U.

Ward devoted himself to the hearing in the Supreme Court with the same energy, zeal, and ability that he has shown in the previous stages of the case…. Hoyt later wrote: The decision U. In response to the argument that this policy did not live up to the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the court quoted from their decision in the case of Botiller v.

Dominguez U. If the treaty was violated by the general statute enacted for the purpose of ascertaining the validity of claims derived from the Mexican government, it was a matter of international concern, which the two states must determine…. And even if they were living on the ranch then, they had lost their rights when they did not file a claim with the Land Commission in the s — even though the Land Commission was supposed to deal with the rights of Indians separately.

Prominent Indian rights activist Albert Smiley gave a cynical summation of the situation:. One tribe is nicely placed and has water and vineyards and homes occupied for generations; but an ex-governor of California came and saw and coveted, and between him and a purchased judge and an indolent and incapable agent and an indifferent Government they are to be ousted…. All the Mission Indians are ready for civilization, but we will not allow them to be civilized.

They are crowded from every foot that will grow a tree or pasture a sheep. The debasing influence of camp life and camp life itself can be eliminated there in five years by the exercise, not of any self-satisfying quality called benevolence, but by the exercise of common honesty. In , after nearly a decade of legal wrangling and delays, the U. With the decision their fate was sealed.

Legally, J. Downey Harvey, whose family owned the Warner Ranch, could have had them evicted from his property the day after the decision was issued, but he agreed not to do anything until Congress had time to act. This would have still left 14, acres at the south of the ranch for a reservoir project. In July , the Indian Office recommended that a special inspector be sent out to locate a reservation site.

He spent a little over a week in the field looking over possible reservation sites. Buying the Monserrate Ranch was a farce, he declared. McLaughlin had seen the land in December when it was green from the first winter rains, but come summer, the ranch was almost completely dry.

Lummis threw himself into the issue with his customary zeal. Besides his magazine, Lummis had another ace up his sleeve — he had attended Harvard University with Teddy Roosevelt. In November , Lummis met with the President. He pushed his old acquaintance hard to get what he wanted. Meanwhile, Senator Thomas Bard of Ventura County introduced a bill to provide the funds for the removal.

We thank you for coming here to talk to us in a way we can understand. It is the first time anyone has done so. You ask us to think what place we like next best to this place where we always live. You see that graveyard out there? There are our fathers and our grandfathers. You see that Eagle-nest mountain and that Rabbithole mountain?

When God made them, He gave us this place. We do not care for any other place. It may be good, but it is not ours. We have always lived here. We would rather die here. Our fathers did. We cannot leave them. Our children born here — how can we go away? If you give us the best place in the world, it is not so good for us as this.

The Captain he say his people cannot go anywhere else; they cannot live anywhere else. Here they always live; their people always live here. There is no other place. This is our home. We ask you to get it for us. If Harvey Downey [sic] say he own this place, that is wrong. The Indians always here. We do not go on this land. We stay here. Everybody knows this Indian land. These Hot Springs always Indian.

We cannot live anywhere else. We were born here and our fathers are buried here. We do not think of any place after this. We want this place, and not any other place. There is no other place for us. We do not want you to buy any other place. If you will not buy this place we will go into the mountains like quail, and die there, the old people and the women and children.

Let the government be glad and proud. It can kill us. We do not fight. We do what it says. If we cannot live here we want to go into those mountains and die. We do not want any other home. Ambrosio Ortega served as lay reader at the little Catholic chapel at Cupa when a priest was not available. Lummis then set out to do exactly what Capt. The Commission made two tours of inspection through Southern California during the summer of All told, the Commission considered 45 possible reservation sites and visited 28 of them.

They examined each site, took photographs, measured the water flow, and made copious notes. Nolasquez and Ortega were often asked their opinion; some of the sites they admitted were nice enough, but they always made it clear that the people wanted to remain at Cupa. During that same summer, Commissioner of Indian Affairs W.

Jones also visited California, and Lummis arranged for the two Indians to meet him. They renewed their request to remain in the Cupa homes. On August 28, the Commission submitted its final report. Salvador Nolasquez served as village captain at both Cupa and Pala. Photo from when he accompanied the Warner Ranch Indian Commission as one of the representatives of his people.

Once the title to the land at Pala was clear, preparations for the actual removal could begin. They say that they prefer him a thousand times to Mr. Lummis [to] whom they have taken a strange, unreasoning dislike. Still, Lummis and his party had a job to do. Then they called a meeting at the schoolhouse. Father B. And with that the Indians rose as a body and left the room.

This, he felt, was good evidence that no matter what Capt. Cibimoat said, they expected to move. Publicly, he reassured the newspapers that everything would be just fine, but privately, he continued to press for troops. We will never give in. Some of our people are scattered among the tribes in Riverside and San Bernardino counties, but the old men and women would not leave, and have begged to be taken above Warners Ranch in the mountains, where they can look down upon the graves of their ancestors.

Some newspapers portrayed Blacktooth as defiant, and ready to fight or flee. While in town, Blacktooth also visited with attorney John Brown, Jr. Another white man who arrived on the scene about this same time was George L. At the time, the people were ready to listen to anyone who offered that promise.

On the other hand, none of the other Anglos involved with the removal seem to have cared much for Lawson. The Los Angeles Express eventually stopped publishing his dispatches. Lummis developed a special dislike for Lawson, an attitude Lawson returned in kind. Josephine Babbitt rear, second from the right and her students at Pala, She was soon transferred to another government school.

As April drew to a close, the situation looked bleak on all sides. The government, however, was still determined that the removal should take place as soon as possible. Grasping at his last straw, attorney John Brown called upon President Roosevelt himself to intervene and stop the removal. Cibimoat and several other men from the tribe to come to San Bernardino and lay their case directly before the president.

It is difficult to judge at this late date what Brown hoped to accomplish. Perhaps he hoped the president could arrange some extra-legal solution, which was highly unlikely. Meanwhile, the Indian Office made one of its few good decisions in the whole matter.

They ordered James E. Jenkins, one of eight Special Inspectors in the Indian Service, to head to San Diego County and take charge of the removal, superseding both Wright and Lummis, who had expected to supervise personally. Jenkins proved to be just the right man for the job. He immediately began to make the necessary arrangements for the removal. They began arriving on the ranch around May 8 or 9, set up a temporary camp about half a mile from the village along the banks of Agua Caliente Creek, and settled in to wait for the word to go.

He enlisted whatever support he could get for his thankless task — Josephine Babbitt, the teacher at the government school; Domingo Moro, the Indian policeman at Cupa;55 and even George Lawson. Jenkins definitely had a certain element of fear on his side. He could be patient, but ultimately he expected to be obeyed. His diplomacy seems to have been helped along by the absence of Capt.

Brown was not without influence in San Bernardino. Cibimoat, Salvador Nolasquez, Ambrosio Ortega, and two other men were there, but they were not allowed to speak to the president, simply shake his hand. The same night that the men met the president, a runner arrived in San Bernardino to announce that removal was imminent.

Jenkins, in fact, had planned to begin the next day, but then agreed to wait until the delegation in San Bernardino could return. Cibimoat, Ortega, and Blacktooth set off for Cupa as soon as they got the news. The other men followed soon after. The outcome seemed inevitable, but Cibimoat still had a few cards left to play. Cibimoat and his two companions reached Cupa late Saturday night.

According to Lawson, when they discovered how well Jenkins had succeeded at convincing the Indians to move they were furious. Told that the removal was now set to begin on Monday, May 11, , Capt. Cibimoat tried to stall. He called a meeting of the people and told them that he had talked with President Roosevelt and claimed that Salvador Nolasquez was coming soon with a paper that would let them keep their homes.

He called another meeting for 7: Cibimoat present. Jenkins agreed they would meet again in the morning. Agent Wright, who had been keeping a low profile for several days, left the ranch about this time to supervise arrangements at Pala. Whatever moves were left to be played, there was no doubt in his mind what the final outcome would be. Cibimoat and Ortega waited three hours at Mesa Grande to get a connection to San Bernardino, but around 9 p.

Returning to Cupa, the men held another late-night meeting with the villagers. Later still—Lawson claimed — Cibimoat crept over to the schoolhouse in the darkness and sat talking with Josephine Babbitt long into the night.

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